Unit 12 Organisational

Unit 12 Organisational behavior Marks and Spencer

Report on Organisational Behaviour and Motivation

Introduction Unit 12 Organisational behavior

Organizational culture is becoming a popular concept in business organizations. It explains the psychology, beliefs, values, and experiences of the organisation. It is seen that when positive organizational culture is provided to the people in an organization, people tend to behave in a positive way and thus, strive for attaining organizational excellence as they are attached to the organizations.

Unit 12 Organisational Behaviour

Organisational culture is also characterized by motivation which helps in achieving organizational goals and objectives (Weng et al. 2015). In the below discussion, influence of culture, power and politics on the behaviour of individuals along with theories of motivation are discussed in Part A. In Part B, effective team working and concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior are discussed.  A UK based organization named Marks and Spencer is considered for the discussion which specializes in the selling of home products, clothing as well as luxury food products.

Unit 39 Sales management

1.      Part A LO1 Analyse the influence of culture, politics, and power on the behavior of others in an organizational context.

1.1 TASK 1 P1 ANALYSE HOW AN ORGANISATION’S CULTURE, POLITICS, AND POWER CAN INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE.

Each and every organization is characterised by behaviours of individuals as well as a group of individuals when formed in a team. Human behaviour is complex in nature and each and every individual is different from one another. Human behavior constitutes to be an important consideration in the success of an organisation as it is the humans who perform the work in an organization for its success. With respect to individual and team behavior, it is seen that culture, power, and politics are the major factors that influence human behavior whether at the individual or group level.

Organisational culture is a popular concept which explains the psychology, beliefs, values and experiences of organisation.

Unit 38 Customer value management

It is seen that when positive organizational culture is provided to the people in an organization, people tend to behave in a positive way and thus, strive for attaining organisational excellence as they are attached to the organizations. This can be seen in Marks and Spencer where a positive organizational culture is provided (Coccia 2014). The Company has a customer-driven culture wherein all the people involved in the organization make a real effort in enhancing customer satisfaction, employing the right people, and provide the right training. The business is dynamic and thus, it always looks for ways to change the way they work. Also, it has been observed that effective communication practices are used by the Company to gather, collect and communicate the information which is required to carry business operations which provides a positive work culture to the employees.

Unit 37 Consumer behavior and insight

Good organisational culture provided by Marks and Spencer states that the behaviour of individuals is also positive. It has been identified that the employees and the workforce behave properly in the Company. Individual behavior is continuously nourished by a healthy organisational culture. However, it has been criticized by Kitchin  (2017) stating that organizational culture has a negative influence on the individual and team behavior. To achieve market competitiveness, internal competitiveness arises in the organization which affects the behavior of individuals as well as teams as each and every person and team is considered to be a competitor.

Unit 40 International marketing

Through this thinking, performance of the organization is negatively impacted and thus, organizational culture sometimes plays a negative role in impacting the performance by impacting the individual as well as team behaviors. The positive culture provided by the Company controls the behavior of an individual as a result of which individual interests are overpowered by organizational interests. Thus, it is recommended to the Company to inculcate positive work cultures which can result in positive team behavior wherein the group of individuals work collectively by understanding each and another’s the point of view which in turn affects the performance of the whole team. It is seen that the organizational culture of Marks and Spencer has been effective enough in influencing team performance which is characterized by an individual as well as group behaviors. The customer has driven the culture of the Company helped in enhancing the value to customers which are made possible through effective team working which increased the performance (Taylor 2018).

Unit 41 Brand management Assignment HND

Apart from organisational culture, politics is another important factor that influences the behaviour of an individual as well as team which in turn impacts the organizational performance. Marks and Spencer is one such Company wherein employees who do not work hard make use of dirty politics to secure their positions. Politics, here means the irrational behaviour of the individuals in an organisation to gain advantages that are beyond their control. It leads to a negative ambiance. With regards to Marks and Spencer, it is seen that the Company has a tall structure with many employees and the responsibility goes down the line of management for its smooth functioning. However, there are a high number of employees at each level who are more interested in spoiling in the image of people in front of others (Pereira, Malik, and Froese 2017).

Unit 42 Planning for growth

The employees in the Company by indulging themselves in dirty politics spoil the ambiance of the workplace which in turn impacts the relationship of all the employees. Negativity among employees results in negative behavior of individuals which are involved in politics either who are the reason of politics or are the victims. Individuals have a callous attitude with each other which hampers the communication between them. They behave differently with their peers and colleagues to and a feeling of frustration and anger prevails. Also, team behavior gets affected like a lot of information gets manipulated and is not passed in its desired form. Superiors get the wrong picture as a result of which team behaves in a negative way.

Unit 12 Organisational Behaviour

All this affected the working of Marks and Spencers as a team. Thus, it is seen that individual, as well as team behavior, is affected by politics prevailing in the organization. However, Pettigrew  (2014) criticized the above point stating that it is the politics that helps the employees to grow in their careers as politics teach them how to work in corporate and how to be more competitive which in turn affects the behavior as well as the performance.

Unit 43 Tapping into new international markets

Power is another factor that influences the behavior of individuals as well as team in turn affecting the organizational performance. With regards to power, it is seen that more the power an individual or a team has, the more influence it has on the organization. In the context of Marks and Spencer, it is seen that employees who have major power, especially senior managers have a high degree of point of pursuing power which enables them to control their own environment (Anitha and Begum 2016). The behavior of the employees is changed when a powerful leader leads the whole team.

Unit 32 Business Strategy

M1 Critically analyse how the culture, politics and power of an organization can influence individual and team behavior and performance

For this criterion, a critical evaluation of the influence of the organizational culture, power, and politics on the behavior of an individual, group, as well as the performance of the organization, has been discussed.

D1 Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enables teams and organizations to succeed, providing justified recommendations. To achieve distinction criterion, it is seen that the particular task, recommendations to Marks and Spencer are provided.

Unit 8 Innovation and Commercialization

LO2 EVALUATE HOW TO MOTIVATE INDIVIDUALS AND TEAMS TO ACHIEVE A GOAL.

P2 Evaluate how content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organizational context.

Motivation is a key factor determining the achievement of goals in an organisation. Individuals and teams within an organisation are motivated to achieve organizational goals. Motivation in an organization is explained by two types of theories- content theory and process theory. The content theory of motivation deals in explaining why human needs change over time. The specific factors that affect the motivations behavior are elucidated in these theories which are the internal factors. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y are popular content theories that provide a greater understanding of motivation (Al Saifi 2015). Theory X states that employees in an organization do not perform their job as they dislike and try to avoid their work. They are forced to work in an organization as they do not wish to take responsibility and lack ambition. On the other hand, theory Y completely contradicts theory X. As per theory Y, it is an optimistic theory in which employees are creative and are self-employed. This is a great theory of motivation as it is gaining popularity in modern-day organizations. Self-empowered teams are the basic characteristic of this theory.

Considering Marks and Spencer, it is seen that the Company’s motivation skills and attributes can be aligned with Theory Y in which employees are motivated to perform better. The Company deals in many clothing and luxury food products which demand high degree of creativity and innovation. For the Company, human resources are one of the most important assets as they lead the organization towards creating new products and services which are a product of the imagination and creation of employees. In Marks and Spencer, the majority of the employees are self-motivated and appreciate responsibility (Pettigrew 2014). They are motivated to perform well as they are considered to be an important part of the organization.

Unit 7 Business Law

This motivation plays an important role in achieving organizational objectives as the objectives are fulfilled by the team work of employees who use their skills, talent, expertise as well as innovation in creating value for the customers by providing outstanding products and services. The goals and objectives of Marks and Spencer to create a global brand has been made possible through its highly motivated employees who tend to perform well for the organization by providing it with amazing ideas and creativity in relation to product and service offering. However, some traits of theory X have also been identified in this company as some of the employees despite of providing motivation do not take their responsibilities efficiently. They dislike their work and thus, are not able to direct the organisation towards the achievement of goals (Geppert and Dorrenbacher 2014).

Considering the other type of theory which is process theories of motivation, it is seen that these theories, unlike content theories, address factors that determine the degree, modification as well as the continuation of effort. One of the most popular process theories of motivation is the Porter-Lawler Model which is an integrated approach including all elements of all motivation theories. It is a complex model that explains that performance leads to job satisfaction through role perceptions and abilities (Miner 2015). The three elements of this theory are effort, performance, and satisfaction. The effort is the amount of energy exerted by an employee, performance is the leading function of the efforts of individuals and satisfaction is the leading function of the performance. In the context of Marks and Spencer, it is seen that the perception of effort-rewards probabilities among employees is high because employees are provided with values and rewards. The motivation culture in Marks and Spencer included effort-performance-reward-satisfaction in which employees were motivated to perform better which in turn helped in increasing their performance on the basis of which they were rewarded. The reward system increased the level of job satisfaction among employees which made them more hard-working helping in achieving organisational goals and objectives. The reward system as mentioned in this theory enabled the Company to provide honour to those employees who work hard to help the organisation achieve its goal of expanding the business as well as customer base. However, Miner (2015) criticised motivation stating that organisational goals and objectives are achieved through other factors as well. Apart from motivation, financial and operational factors are equally important in helping the organisation achieve its goals and objectives. Finance and business operations determine the level of success an organisation can achieve in a given period of time. This has been counter criticized by Miner (2015) who stated that the major factor responsible for achievement of organisational goals as if the employees are not motivated to perform well an organization cannot achieve success despite a huge amount of financial resources and strategic business operations.

Apart from the behavioural theories of motivation, motivation techniques also play an important role in influencing the behaviour of others which helps in the achievement of goals and objectives. Marks and Spencer strictly followed daily activity schedules to break out the lethargy cycle and get motivated for basic activities. The activities are listed and are ranked from 0-5, and the employee is able to refocus on simple pleasures and mastery (Jelphs and Dickinson 2016). However, this particular motivation technique is not so effective as it depends on the behavior of an individual.

After considering the motivational theories and techniques used by Marks and Spencer, it has been identified that the Company uses effective motivation techniques and models to keep the employees motivated to strive for organisational success. However, the effectiveness can be increased by the Company by enhancing the number of Reward and Recognition program on a quarterly level. The employees of the Company should be rewarded at quarterly levels to keep them motivated (Lawter, Kopelman and Prottas 2015). In addition to this, it is recommended to the Company to provide some room for regular breaks to refresh the employees which in turn helps them in gaining their strength and health so as to achieve goals. Furthermore, the technique of providing regular and supportive feedback is required to help achieve organizational efficiency as the employees work on their areas of operations.

M2 Critically evaluate how to influence the behavior of others through the effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts, and models.

This merit criterion is achieved by presenting critical evaluation of the process and content theories of motivation along with motivation techniques that are used by Marks and Spencer in helping the achievement of goals and objectives. These theories and models influence the behaviors of individuals as a result of which achievement of goals is impacted either positively or negatively.

Unit 6 Managing a Successful Business Project

D1 Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enables teams and organizations to succeed, providing justified recommendations

To achieve this criterion, the discussion provides recommendations to the Company to improve their motor skills and techniques that are likely to help the organization in the future on the basis of the critical evaluation of motivation has been done.

LO3 DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO COOPERATE EFFECTIVELY WITH OTHERS.

P3 DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE TEAM, AS OPPOSED TO AN INEFFECTIVE TEAM.

Co-operation among team members is the most essential element required for successful and smooth business conduct. Co-operation in the workplace inculcates the engagement of employees in open communication. Co-operation in the workplace is highly characterized by a team that can be effective or ineffective. It has been observed that the mere presence of a team does not help the organizations. A team has to be effective in order to achieve goals and objectives. A team can gain the status of being effective when an open discussion prevails wherein members are allowed to express their views freely in an organization, situational leadership style is used and members listen to each others’ views and opinions (Senaratne and Gunawardane 2015). An ineffective team is totally in contradiction with an effective team as the members in such teams do not listen to each other, closed discussions happen in the organization and the authoritative leadership style is followed. The decision making of effective teams is characterized by a form of consensus in which general agreement is taken from each and every member whereas, in ineffective teams, decisions are generally taken prematurely before the real issues are resolved. Furthermore, it is seen those team roles play an important role in making the teams effective or not. This can be understood with the help of team development theory propounded by Meredith Belbin.  According to this theory, there are a total of none team roles that affect the effectiveness of teams which in turn impacts the behavior. These roles are as follows:

Action-oriented roles

  • Shaper- He is the one who challenges the team to improve who are extroverts and dynamic.
  • Implementer- He gets the things done by others by turning the plans into actions.
  • Complete-Finisher- He ensures that there are no errors and omissions in the completion of the projects.

People Oriented Roles

  • Coordinator- Coordinator is the one who acts as the traditional team leader who guides the team.
  • Team worker- He is that person who provides support and ensures that whether the team is working effectively or not (Muchiri, Kinyanjui, and Assumpta 2017).
  • Resource Investigator- He is the innovative and curious person that explores available options and negotiates resources.

Thought oriented roles

  • Plant- He is the creative innovator who provides new ideas and approaches but is not so good in communication.
  • Monitor-Evaluator- He is the analyser who evaluates the ideas. He is shrewd and critical in nature as he identifies the pros and cons before making and decision.
  • Specialist- Specialists are those people who possess specialised knowledge and skills to perform a certain job.

Considering this theory, it has been identified that Marks and Spencer also follow this model in defining team roles of different departments in the organization. The Company provides home products, luxury food products, and clothing which consist of different departments such as Finance and Accounts, Technical, Logistics, Human Resources, and many more. The reason behind effective coordination and communication between departments is the effective team role played by different employees in an organization that enhanced the effectiveness of the team. With respect to teams, it is seen that effectiveness is dependent on the roles played by different individuals in an organization. Another major theoretical framework adopted by Marks and Spencer is the Tuckman model propounded by Bruce Tuckman which is a popular method in providing the base for effective team building (Woodcock 2017). There are four phases according to Tuckman’s theory. These are Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. Forming is the initial stage of team development wherein the majority of the team members are positive and polite and leaders play dominant roles. The next step is storming in which individuals are pushed against the boundaries. The team members challenge the authority of each other which results into conflicts between them. Norming is the third phase in which people resolve their conflicts and understand the opinions and strengths of their colleagues. The last phase is performing in which team goals are effectively achieved through hard work. With regards to Marks and Spencer, it is seen that the Company followed Tuckman’s theory to some extent. The forming stage was effectively executed by the people when the Company decided to introduce its new range of food products. The overall team between different departments coordinated very well in the Company which enhanced the working of the team. The employees showed excellent communication skills in the first phase itself which helped the Company to carry out its functions smoothly (DiazGranados et al. 2017). However, at the second phase which is norming, a high degree of conflicts arose when a new range of food products was introduced. Conflicts took a long time to get resolved which somehow affected the effectiveness of the whole team. Considering the two other stages, it is seen that Marks and Spencer performed well in coordinating all the departments including new food range. At all these stages, different individuals exhibit different behaviors which are responsible for affecting the team working and team development. It is seen that an effective team results in open communication which fosters good and positive behavior among people in the organization, whereas, an ineffective team facilitates negative behavior among the employees who affect their ability to achieve goals.

With respect to both these theories, it is seen that despite the usefulness of the theories in analyzing the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of teams, somewhere these theories lag in providing detailed knowledge of the team working as the only theoretical area is covered.

M3 Analyse relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation

Relevant team group and development theories like the Belbin model and Tuckman model are used to explain the concept of effective and ineffective teams in relation to Marks and Spencer.

D2 Critically analyze and evaluate the relevance of team development theories in the context of OB concepts and philosophies that influence behavior in the workplace

To meet the distinction criterion, the team development theories like Belbin and Tuckman in the context of organizational behavior, critical analysis has been done to present the discussion in relation to influencing the behavior of the individuals in the organization.

Unit 3 Human Resource Management
LO4 APPLY CONCEPTS AND PHILOSOPHIES OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TO A GIVEN BUSINESS SITUATION

P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of OB within an organizational context and a given business situation

With respect to the concept as well as philosophy of organizational behavior, it is seen that they are based on key elements which are the nature of the people and nature of the organization. Nature of people refers to the basic qualities of persons and individuals involved in an organization that can be similar or unique. Factors affecting the nature of people are individual difference, whole person, motivated behavior, and perception (Chumg et al. 2016). Considering the first factor, individual differences, it is seen that the individuals are approached individually through one-on-one. Managers of Marks and Spencer, generally conduct one-on-one discussions on a quarterly basis with the employees to identify their point of view. However, this has been criticized on the grounds of being biased and judgemental. The second factor of organizational behavior is the perception which is an ability to observe and conclude things. Motivation is another factor that influences the behavior of individuals in a positive as well as negative way. The employees of Marks and Spencer are more positively motivated by the HR strategies as well as the reward strategies offered by the management however, there are certain low-level employees who are not satisfied by the policies of the Company which instills negative behavior of employees. A whole person involves the emotional conditions of the employees which are nonseparable from physical conditions.

The other element of the concept and philosophy of organizational behavior is the nature of the organisation which also plays a significant role. The factors affecting the nature of the organisation are social system, ethics as well as a mutual interest. The social system is the social connectivity of the organizations with its customers, suppliers as well as other stakeholders. It can be formal and informal. The behaviors of individuals are affected by these social systems as it acts as the mirror reflection of the values and beliefs of organizations (Higgs and Dulewicz 2016). Group and individual drives affect behavior. Ethics is the moral principle of organizations. Marks and Spencer meet moral standards and ethics in its business operations like values, integrity, discipline as well as client centricity. Moreover, the code of ethics training rewards has been recently added to the company culture for notable ethical behavior. Mutual interest refers to the mutual understanding of the employees as well as the organization. The mutual interest is an important determinant of behavior prevailing in the workplace. With respect to Marks and Spencer, it is seen that the Company to a great extent has undergone various challenges pertaining to mutual understanding between employees and organizations (Weng et al. 2015). Thus, mutual interest can lead to positive as well as negative behaviors. With regards to the team development theory of Tuckman, it has been analyzed that the elements of concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior are in complete alignment with the four phases of forming, norming, storming and performing.

M4 Justify and evaluate a range of concepts and philosophies in how they inform and influence behavior in both positive and negative ways.

To achieve this criterion, the concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior are presented to explain the impact they have on behavior in a positive and negative way.

D2 Critically analyze and evaluate the relevance of team development theories in the context of OB concepts and philosophies that influence behavior in the workplace.

To attain this, the critical analysis of the concepts and philosophies of organizational behaviors are discussed. Moreover, the concepts are aligned with the phases of the Tuckman theory.

CONCLUSION

Through this discussion, it is concluded that organizational behavior and motivation are important in an organization. Considering the case of Marks and Spencer, it is seen that a positive organizational culture is provided which created a positive behavior among the teams and individuals. Organizational power and politics highly impact the behaviors of others as well as the performance of individuals and groups. Both content and process theories of motivations like Theory X and Y and Porter-Larlow models are considered to identify the type of motivation followed by the Company. It has been identified that the effective team working is a major characteristic of the Company; however, certain traits of ineffective team working have also been identified. The concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior are identified.

REFERENCES

Al Saifi, S.A., 2015. Positioning organizational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management19(2), pp.164-189.

Anitha, J. and Begum, F.N., 2016. Role of organizational culture and employee commitment in employee retention. ASBM Journal of Management9(1), p.17.

Chung, H.F., Seaton, J., Cooke, L. and Ding, W.Y., 2016. Factors affecting employees’ knowledge-sharing behavior in the virtual organization from the perspectives of well-being and organizational behavior. Computers in Human Behavior64, pp.432-448.

Coccia, M., 2014. Structure and organizational behavior of public research institutions under the unstable growth of human resources. International Journal of Services Technology and Management20(4-6), pp.251-266.

Diaz-Granados, D., Shuffler, M.L., Wingate, J.A. and Salas, E., 2017. Team Development Interventions. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Processes, pp.555-586.

Geppert, M. and Dörrenbächer, C., 2014. Politics and power within multinational corporations: Mainstream studies, emerging critical approaches and suggestions for future research. International Journal of Management Reviews16(2), pp.226-244.

Higgs, M. and Dulewicz, V., 2016. Developments in leadership thinking. In Leading with Emotional Intelligence (pp. 75-103). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Jeeps, K. and Dickinson, H., 2016. Working in teams 2e. Policy Press.

Kitchin, D., 2017. An introduction to organizational behavior for managers and engineers: A group and multicultural approach. Routledge.

Lawter, L., Kopelman, R.E., and Prottas, D.J., 2015. McGregor’s theory X/Y and job performance: A multilevel, multi-source analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues27(1-4), p.84.

Miner, J.B., 2015. Expectancy Theories: Victor Vroom, and Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler. In Organizational Behavior 1 (pp. 110-129). Routledge.

Miner, J.B., 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Muchiri, W.M., Kinyanjui, N.G.A.N.G.A., and Assumpta, K.A.G.I.R.I., 2017. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINABILITY OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROJECTS IN KENYA: A CASE OF EABL FOUNDATION. International Journal of Project Management1(12), pp.203-220.

Pereira, V., Malik, A., and Froese, F.J., 2017. Mapping the impact of Asian business systems on HRM and organizational behavior: multi-level comparative perspectives. Journal of Asia Business Studies11(3), pp.253-261.

Pettigrew, A.M., 2014. The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge.

Ruch, W., Gander, F., Platt, T., and Hofmann, J., 2018. Team roles: Their relationships to character strengths and job satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology13(2), pp.190-199.

Senaratne, S., and Gunawardane, S., 2015. Application of team role theory to construction design teams. Architectural Engineering and Design Management11(1), pp.1-20.

Taylor, S.P., 2018. Organizational behavior, leadership, and change. International Journal of Housing and Human Settlement Planning4(1), pp.21-36.

Weng, R.H., Huang, C.Y., Chen, L.M., and Chang, L.Y., 2015. Exploring the impact of transformational leadership on nurse innovation behavior: A cross‐sectional study. Journal of nursing management23(4), pp.427-439.

Woodcock, M., 2017. Team development manual. Routledge.

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